Nobel Prize : Here’s everything you need to know about Nobel Prize

Nobel prize are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel’s will of 1895, are awarded to “those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.” Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite. He died in 1896. In his will, he bequeathed all of his “remaining realisable assets” to be used to establish five prizes which became known as “Nobel Prizes.” Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.

Awarded for Contributions that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind in the areas of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Economics and Peace,

characterized the Peace Prize as “to the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses”. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) funded the establishment of the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, to also be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Nobel Prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.

The Nobel Prizes, beginning in 1901, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, beginning in 1969, have been awarded 609 times to 975 people and 25 organizations. Five individuals and two organisations have received more than one Nobel Prize.

Among the recipients, 11 are Indians (four Indian citizens and seven of Indian ancestry or residency). Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian citizen to be awarded and also first Asian to be awarded in 1913. Mother Teresa is the only woman among the list of recipients.


Here is a complete list of Nobel Prize winner of India

Year Laureate Born Died Field Citation
1902 Ronald Ross 13 May 1857

Almora, Uttarakhand

16 September 1932

London, United Kingdom

Physiology or Medicine “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it.”
1907 Joseph Rudyard Kipling 30 December 1865

Malabar Hill, South Mumbai, Maharashtra

18 January 1936

London, United Kingdom

Literature “in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.”
1913 Rabindranath Tagore 7 May 1861

Kolkata, West Bengal

7 August 1941

Kolkata, West Bengal

Literature “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.”
1930 Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 7 November 1888

Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu

21 November 1970

Bangalore, Karnataka

Physics “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him.”
1968 Har Gobind Khorana 9 January 1922

Raipur, Punjab

9 November 2011

Concord, Massachusetts, United States

Physiology or Medicine “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.”[13]

(awarded together with American biochemists Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley)

1979 Teresa Bojaxhiu, M.C 26 August 1910

Skopje, North Macedonia

5 September 1997

Kolkata, West Bengal

Peace “for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity.”
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 19 October 1910

Lahore, Punjab

21 August 1995

Chicago, Illinois, United States

Physics “for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars.”[15]

(awarded together with American astrophysicist William Alfred Fowler)

1998 Amartya Kumar Sen 3 November 1933

Santiniketan, Bolpur, West Bengal

Economics “for his contributions to welfare economics.”
2009 Venkatraman “Venki” Ramakrishnan 1 April 1952

Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu

Chemistry “for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.”[17]

(awarded together with American biochemist Thomas A. Steitz and Israeli crystallographer Ada Yonath)

2014 Kailash Satyarthi 11 January 1954

Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh

Peace “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education.”[18]

(awarded together with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai)

2019 Abhijit Banerjee 21 February 1961

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Economics “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”

(awarded together with his wife Esther Duflo and American economist Michael Kremer)